Kalibangan, Rajasthan, Ancient Cities of Indus Valley Civilization. The Harappans worshipped Pashupati Shiva in his actual form as well as in the representative form as Linga, worship of mother goddess, worship of trees, animals; serpents were all adopted by Hinduism. Its floor is made of burnt bricks set in gypsum and mortar. An attempt has been made by Natwar Jha a palaeographist and Vedic scholar who says that script is syllabic that is no vowels are written. The Harappan way of making baked pottery, bricks, beads, jewellery and textiles was adopted in the later civilization. The merchandise was shipped from Lothal and incoming goods were received here. Harappa (Punjab, Pakistan) is located on the left bank of the Ravi. Knobbed pottery was ornamented on the outside with knobs. Kalibangan's excavation report was published in its entirety in 2003 by the Archaeological Survey of India, 34 years after the completion of excavations. Sutkagendor in Baluchistan, near river Dashta 4. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Another building nearby was either a meeting hall or a market place. Four unique bronzes of elephant, rhinoceros, buffalo and chariot each weighing 60 kgs from the recently excavated site of Daimabad have thrown further light on the bronze work of the Harappans. Another remarkable contribution of the Harappan people was the cultivation of cotton. The camel was rare and horse was not known. Historians have different opinions regarding the causes of the decay and disappearance of the Harappan culture. It is located within the citadel and next to the Great Bath. Besides sheep and goats, dogs, humped cattle buffalo and elephant was certainly domesticated. Flood-supported farming led to large agricultural surpluses, which in turn supported the development of cities. Indus Valley Civilization (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download. Harappan seals and other small objects used by the merchants and traders for stamping their goods have been found in Mesopotamia. The Indus-Valley people were well-acquainted with the use both of cotton and wool. It shares almost all the common features of Indus cities such as town planning, grid pattern, drainage system and elaborates fortification. For instance numerous seals have been discovered with inscriptions of the figures of animals and names in a script which is undecipherable. Situated in Gujarat it is the latest Indus city discovered in India and also one of the largest sites of the civilization. In Harappa the Granary was outside the Fort. Perforated pottery has a large hole at the bottom and small holes all over the wall and was probably used for straining liquor. (2012), the slow southward migration of the monsoons across Asia initially allowed the Indus Valley villages to develop by taming the floods of the Indus and its tributaries. There are many unsolved problems relating to the Indus Valley Civilization. The Indus Valley city of Kalibangan was excavated in the 1960s. Clay figures of the Mother Goddess as the symbol of fertility have been found- these were worshipped by the people. In the beginning, it was called “The Indus Valley Civilization”, due to the discovery of more and more sited far away from the Indus valley this civilization was later named “Indus Civilization”. From the meagre evidence it may be concluded that the civilization represented by these two cities commonly known as the Indus Valley Civilization belonged to the first half of the third millennium B.C. Kalibangan in Ganganagar, near river Ghaggar 6. This is … There were 27 blocks of solid blocks of solid bricks in granary. The number of signs of the Harappan script is known to be between 400 and 600 of which 40 or 60 are basic and the rest are their variants. Stock breeding was important in Indus culture. A trip to Mohenjo daro museum. Presence of a fortified citadel in almost all urban centres. At Kalibangan the lanes and roads of the city were built in a definite proportion. It is one of two Indus cities which have both proto-Harappan and Harappan cultural phases. But there is very little evidence on this opinion. The cities show evidence of an advanced sense of planning and organization. Harappa (Punjab, Pakistan) It is located in the banks of the river Ravi; It was the first site to be excavated among all the Indus sites. Harappan city with three divisions namely-citadel, middle town and lower town was at Dholavira. Others point out that the Harappan culture was destroyed by the Aryans but there is hardly any evidence of a mass scale confrontation between the two. 27. Another well-known building was the Great Bath. Many ancient scripts like Phoenician, various Aramaics and Hemiaretic are connected to or even derived from Harappan. It consists chiefly of wheel made wares both plain and painted. If the focus then shifts to India, then Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro will undoubtedly come up, but after that, India’s other ancient cities are often overlooked. Presence of cooking area, water reservoir in houses. Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Chanhudaro, Kalibangan, Lothal, Banawali, Rakhigarhi and Dholavira were some of the important sites of the Harappan civilization. In the citadel the most impressive buildings were the granaries which were store -houses. The history of India begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC), also known as Harappan Civilization. They believed that there was life after death because the graves often contained household pottery, ornaments and mirrors which might have belonged to the dead persons and which it was thought he or she might need after death. Below the citadel in each city lay a town proper. Indus Valley civilization Multiple Choice Questions(MCQs) & Answers QUESTIONS Indus Valley civilization Multiple Choice Questions(MCQs)& Answers 1 Mohenjodaro is also called as : A mound of the Great B mount of the Survivors C mount of the Living D mount of the Dead Answer: mount of the Dead 2 Identify the site where the Great… The Indus Valley script included over 400 symbols. It is also called the ‘Harappan Civilization’ after the name of its first discovered site. It has evidence of having both proto Harappan and Harappan cultural phases. Ans. Kiriburu is a residential locale in West Singhbhum district and is situated at a height of 4,300ft from man sea level. The Harappan pottery includes goblets, dishes, basins, flasks, narrow necked vases, cylindrical bottles, tumblers, corn measures, spouted vases and a special type of dish on a stand which was a offering stand or incense burner. • Indus Valley Civilization was located on the banks of the river Indus, particularly at the bends that provided water, easy means of transportation of produce and other goods and also some protection by way of natural barriers of the river. Geometrical patterns, circles, squares and triangles and figures of animals, birds, snakes or fish are frequent motifs found in Harappan pottery. Its presence implies the existence of a centralized tax collecting agency. Kalibangan. 29. Lothal is one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. Join The Discussion Lal Mahal of Pune is one of the most famous monuments of Pune. Over 400. Kalibangan flourished for at least 450-600 years. In the lower town a particular building identified by Wheeler as the temple has a monumental entrance and twin stairways leading to a raised platform on which was found one of the rare stone sculptures of a seated figure. Mohenjodaro is the largest of all the Indus cities and has a population estimated to between 41,000 and 35,000. Fire altars indicating the probable existence of a fire cult have been found. The approach followed by Kinnier-Wilson is to find analogies between Harappan and Sumerian signs.S R Rao has produced a different attempt to read the script as containing a pre-Indo-Aryan language of the Indo-European family. Town Planning In Indus Valley Civilization, Religion in the Indus Valley Civilization, History of India, History of Ancient India, Medieval History of India, Modern History of India, History Notes. Others attribute it to some kind of depression in the land which caused floods. It is the only Indus site where the remains of a horse have actually been found. It has given the substantiation of both pre-Harappan culture in the lower layer and Harappan Civilization in the upper layer. Mohenjodaro (Sind) is situated on the right bank of the Indus. Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Banawali, Kalibangan, Lothal, Chahundaro, etc. Goldsmiths made jewellery of silver, gold and precious stones and metal workers made tools and implements in copper and bronze. Kalibangan History in Hindi Kalibanga sabhyata in Hindi Indus Valley Civilization in Hindi. The weights proceeded in a series, first doubling from 1, 2, 4, 8 to 64 and then in decimal multiples of 16. Kalibangan is an ancient site of the Indus Valley Civilization. It was chiefly made and consists of both plain and painted ware and plain variety being more common. It might have served the purpose of ritual bathing vital to any religious ceremony in India. According to Giosan et al. Other good examples of the skill in casting and bronze working are the little models of bullock carts and ikkas from Harappa and Chanhudaro. Rangpur in Ahmedabad, near river Meedar 5. Kalibangan pottery has close resemblance to the pottery of the Hakra ware in Cholistan, to other Early Harappan pottery from the Indus Valley Civilization and to the pottery of the Integration Era. The sensational discoveries made at Harappa in West Punjab and Mohenjodaro in Sind have revolutionised our idea of ancient Indian history. Polychrome pottery is rare and mainly comprised small vases decorated with geometric patterns mostly in red, black and green and less frequently in white and yellow. Leg bone of elephant was found at Kalibangan. Traces of the remains of massive brick walls around both the citadel and the lower town have been discovered here. It was the first Indus site to be discovered and excavated in 1921. Their rediscovery some 60 years later led to the excavations between 1921 and 1934 under the direction of M S Vats. The plain pottery is more common than the painted ware. Indus Valley Civilization GK / General Studies Test with multiple choice questions (MCQs) for UPSC, Civil Services, SSC, Banking, UPPSC, RPSC, KPSC, KAS, … In its proto-Harappan phase the fields were ploughed. Chennai, formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is India`s fourth largest city. Certain trees seem to have been treated as sacred such as papal. The excavation work was carried by R.S Bisht and his team in 190-91. It is distinguished by its exclusive fire altars and is considered as worlds earliest indicated ploughed field. See all quizzes › Go to topic › Question 2 How many symbols were used in Indus Valley writing? The most characteristic feature of the Harappan Civilization was its urbanization. It flourished around 2,500 BC, in the western part of South Asia, in contemporary Pakistan and Western India. It was surrounded by a stone rubble fortification with square bastions at the corners and in the longer sides. In the Lothal port, there was a dockyard which was 216 mtrs in length and 37 mtrs in breadth. It spreads over the region of Punjab, Sindh, North West Frontier Province, Baluchistan, Rajasthan, U.P, Gujarat and some parts of South India. Main types of seals are the square type with a carved animal and inscription and rectangular type with inscription only. The people lived a very comfortable life in well built houses and baths. Below it is an animal with a short thick tail which can be a fox according to S R Rao. Several methods were used by people for the decoration of pottery. The Kalibangan pre-historic site was discovered by Luigi Pio Tessitori, an Italian Indologist (1887–1919). 5. In Egypt and Mesopotamia dried or baked bricks were used. The vast mounds at Harappa were first reported by Masson in 1826 and visited by Cunningham in 1853 and 1873. Important centers of Harappan Civilization are Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Kalibangan, Lothal, Dholavira, Rakhingarhi, Kot Diji, Chanhu-daro, etc. Harappa Civilization in Hindi. The arts of the Indus valley civilization came throughout the last half of 3000 BCE. There is also present an oblong multipillared assembly hall and a big rectangular building which must have served administrative purposes. Important Sites • In India: Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Lothal, Dholavira, Rangpur, Surkotda (Gujarat), Lothal has evidence for the earliest cultivation of rice (1800 BC). Some ascribe it to decreasing fertility on account of the increasing salinity of the soil caused by the expansion of the neighbouring desert. Harappan script is regarded as pictographic since its signs represent birds, fish, varieties of the human form etc. Mortimer Wheeler pointed out that the Harappan culture was destroyed by the Aryans. Majority of these sculptures are made of soft stone like steatite, limestone or alabaster. The Indus civilization was originally called Harappan civilization after this site. The streets were all well planned and drains regularly drained out. Kalibangan. The numerical and decimal system was evolved here which made remarkable contributions towards Vedic mathematics. The best specimen is the little figure of a nude dancing girl with right hand on hips, arms loaded with bangles, head slightly tilted and covered with curly hair, the eyes large and half closed. Surkotada is the only Indus site where the remains of a horse have actually been found. It was essentially urban civilization. Harappans used weights and measures for commercial as well as building purposes. Also known as the Harappan civilization, it dates back to 2500 years ago. Evidence of sea and river transport by ships and boats in several seals and terracotta models have been found apart from the dockyard at Lothal. Archaeologists made the discovery that the people of Indus Valley Civilization, even from the early Harappa periods, had knowledge of medicine and surgery. It was only Indus site with an artificial brick dockyard. Kalibangan is a part of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, located in present Hanumangarh district. 2. Indus Valley Civilization-Lothal and Kalibangan Get top class preparation for IAS right from your home: Get detailed illustrated notes covering entire syllabus : point-by-point for high retention. Presence of residential and non-residential buildings. It must have been another port city though no docking facilities as at Lothal have been found. Kalibangan is an ancient site of the Indus Valley Civilization in northern Rajasthan state. The site was discovered by Luigi Pio Tessitori, an Italian Indologist and linguist.After Independence in 1952, Amlānand Ghosh identified the site as part of Harappan Civilization and marked it for excavation. Various causes have been ascribed for its weakening and then decay: Increase in rainfall, earthquake, decrease in fertility of soil, floods, Aryan invasion, disease etc. In the south-west of Mohenjodaro there was a granary which covers 55 x 37 mtrs area. Harappan people used different types of pottery such as galzed, polychrome, incised perforated and knobbed. Next Question > 3,000. It is surrounded by verandas on four sides. Features of Indus Valley Civilization. Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age Civilization that flourished between 2500-1750 BC in the north western parts of India and present-day Pakistan.. A specimens of images made of both stone and metal have been discovered. Further evidence indicates that they continued well into the second millennium B.C. #Kalibangan#AncientHistory#IndusValley. Lothal in Ahmedabad, near river Sabarmati 7. The plain ware is usually of red clay with or without a fine red slip. Sir John Marshall the eminent Indologist opines that the civilization revealed at these two places leads one to the inference that it is not an incipient one but had begun ages earlier with many millennia of human endeavour behind it. It was divided into 3 parts. It is one of the twin hill stations along with Meghahatuburu. They also held the bull sacred. The main sites like Harappa, Mohenjo Daro, Kalibangan, Lothal, Dholavira are featured below with their respective specialities. Kalibangan was located on a different river from the other major Indus Valley Civilization cities, and its river suffered a fate that led to the end of the city. Terracotta seals found at Mehargarh were the earliest precursors of the Harappan seals. The prehistoric and pre-Mauryan character of Indus Valley Civilization was first identified by Luigi Tessitori at this site. In the field of religions many important features of Harappan religion were adopted in later Hinduism. Sir John Marshal, Lambrick and E.J.H Mackay suggest that the decline of the Harappan civilization was mainly due to the vagaries of the Indus River. Another favourite motive was tree pattern. Plants, trees and pipal leaves are found on pottery. Kalibangan (Rajasthan) was on the banks of the river Ghaggar which dried up centuries ago. Near the granaries were the furnaces where the metal workers produced a variety of objects in metals such as copper, bronze, lead and tin. There are two main arguments as to the nature of the language that it belongs to the Indo-European or even Indo-Aryan family or that it belongs to the Dravidian family. The glazed Harappan pottery is the earliest example of its kind in the ancient world. He also refers to the presence of few fish on the ground. Copper rhino, copper chariot and copper elephant found at Daimabad. Correct Option: C. Even the maritime trade relations with Central and West Asia were started by Harappan people. A small pot was discovered at Chanhudaro which was probably an inkpot. Important Cities and Sites of Indus Valley Civilization: So far archaeologists have come across more than 1000 sites belonging to this civilization Out of these, only 6 can be regarded as cities: Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Chanhu-daro, Lothal, Kalibangan and Banwali The painted pottery is of red and black colours. Impressions of cloth are noticeable on some of the sealing found here. Unakoti is an archaeological venue in Tripura. Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) is the beginning of the history of India. But in the Harappan phase they were not ploughed but dug up. It is the third excavated cityof Harappan sites and the earliest town destroyed by earthquake. Although the theory of ecological factors for the decline of the Harappan civilization is latest yet it does not give us complete answer. Harappa in western Punjab, near river Ravi 2. But in the Harappan phase they were not ploughed but dug up. During its late phase between 2000 and 1700 BC ‘The Indus Valley Civilization as a distinct entity gradually ceased to exist’. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION SITES So far nearly 1000 sites of nearly, mature and late phases of the Indus Civilization are known in the sub-continent. The only other Indus site where rice husk has been found is Rangpur near Ahmedabad. Shivaji stayed there for many years until he had captured his first fort. A second figure of comparable size also comes from Mohenjodaro. The rectangular town planning was unique to the Harappans and was not known in Mesopotamia or Egypt. The Harappan civilization contributed towards the advancement of Mathematics. The various occupations in which people were engaged spanned a wide range. The variants are formed by adding different accents, inflexions or other letters to the former. Some Indus people buried their dead in graves others practised urn-burial. In this article, we have discussed some of the important points of Indus Valley Civilization for the UPSC exam. He also finds close connection between the Brahmi and the Indus script. Use of standard weight… 28. Important Cities and Sites of Indus Valley Civilization • So far archaeologists have come across more than 1000 sites belonging to this civilization. It must have served as the main seaport of the Indus people. History of Chennai encompasses the events of the south Indian history, colonialism and then the massive growth of the city during the 20th century. Culture evolved from the earlier rural communities different types of seals are the square type with a the! Captured his first fort painted ware centre kalibangan indus valley civilization the state of Tamil Nadu and is considered worlds! 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